Understanding Cataracts: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

As an experienced ophthalmologist, my encounters with various eye conditions have been numerous, but one that deserves special attention due to its prevalence is cataracts. In this article, I'll be sharing detailed insights about cataracts, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options, leveraging my wealth of experience in the field.

Introduction to Cataracts

Cataracts, a condition that often comes with age, has proven to be one of the leading causes of vision impairment worldwide. It's a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. This clouding could be compared to a window that's fogged with steam. Cataracts can occur in either one or both eyes but doesn't spread from one eye to the other.

The human eye functions much like a camera. The lens focuses light onto the retina at the back of the eye, where an image is recorded. The lens also adjusts the eye's focus, letting us see things both up close and far away. The lens is made of mostly water and protein. The protein is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and allows light to pass through it. However, as we age, some of the protein may clump together and start clouding a small area of the lens. This is a cataract, and over time, it may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see.

Cataracts are not a cause for panic. They are a part of the natural aging process, and most people will eventually develop them. However, understanding what they are, what causes them, and how they can be treated is essential in maintaining your vision health.

Understanding What Causes Cataracts

The exact cause of cataracts is unknown, but it is most often related to aging. As we grow older, the proteins in our eyes can start to break down and clump together, forming the cloudy patches that characterize cataracts. This is why the condition is much more common among the elderly.

However, age is not the only factor. Other potential causes include injury or trauma to the eye, certain diseases such as diabetes, lifestyle factors like smoking and alcohol consumption, prolonged exposure to sunlight, and certain medications like corticosteroids. Genetics can also play a role, as some people are born with cataracts or develop them at a young age.

It's important to note that while these factors can increase your risk of developing cataracts, they do not guarantee that you will get them. Similarly, avoiding these risk factors does not ensure that you will not develop cataracts. The condition is complex and multifactorial, meaning that a variety of factors can contribute to its development.


Common Symptoms of Cataracts

Cataracts often develop slowly and don't disturb your eyesight early on. But with time, you'll notice that your vision isn't as good as it once was. Common symptoms of cataracts include blurred or hazy vision, difficulty seeing at night, sensitivity to light and glare, seeing "halos" around lights, frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription, fading or yellowing of colors, and double vision in a single eye.

One of the most telling signs is trouble with night vision. You might find it harder to see in low-light situations, like when you're driving at night. Another sign is seeing halos around lights, which can make oncoming headlights a problem when you're behind the wheel.

It's important to remember that these symptoms can also be signs of other eye problems. If you have any of these symptoms, check with your eye care professional. Regular eye exams can help detect problems early and help preserve your vision.

Treatment Options for Cataracts

If your vision loss from cataracts starts to interfere with your daily activities, it may be time to discuss surgery with your ophthalmologist. Cataract surgery is one of the most common operations performed and also one of the safest and most effective. Surgery involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial one.

There are two types of surgery to remove cataracts: phacoemulsification (also called "phaco") and extracapsular cataract extraction. The type of surgery your ophthalmologist recommends will depend on the size and location of your cataract.

Besides surgery, there are other less invasive options. If your cataracts are not too severe, your doctor might suggest new glasses, better lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses. In some cases, a simple change of glasses can provide temporary improvement.

Preventive Measures for Cataracts

While it's not possible to completely prevent cataracts, there are certainly steps you can take to slow their development. Regular eye examinations, for instance, can help detect cataracts early. Additionally, a healthy lifestyle can go a long way in maintaining good eye health. This includes a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, regular exercise, refraining from smoking, and limiting alcohol consumption.

Protecting your eyes from harmful UV radiation is also crucial. Wear sunglasses that block out 99% to 100% of both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Too much exposure to sunlight can cause cataracts to develop faster.

Regular eye exams are the key to maintaining your vision health. By catching conditions like cataracts early, you can get the treatment you need to keep your eyes healthy and your vision sharp.


Cataracts are a common part of aging, but that doesn't mean they have to impact your quality of life. By understanding what causes cataracts, recognizing the symptoms, and knowing the treatment options, you can ensure that you're doing all you can to keep your eyes healthy. Remember, regular eye exams are your first line of defense in identifying and treating eye conditions like cataracts. Don't wait until your vision is significantly affected. Take action today to protect your eyesight for the future.

For more about the causes, symptoms, and treatments of cataracts, visit Progressive Ophthalmology Surgical & Medical Eye Care at our Queens, New York office. Call 718-565-2020 to schedule an appointment today.